Yale Journal of Health Policy, Law, and Ethics

Masthead: Volume 20

EditorS-in-CHIEF

Clio Sophia Koller
Jacob Madden

Managing Editor

Derek Mubiru

Articles Editors

Justin Cole
Evan Miller
Rachel Perler
Chris Umanzor

Submissions Editors

Patrick Buckley
Poonam Daryani
David Herman
Haleigh T. Larson

Executive Editors

Colette Le Brannan
Brian D. Hong
Nina Leviten
Jessica Quinter
Emile Shehada

Lead Editors

Christian Abraham Arega
Evie Cai
Isaac G. Freedman
Sasha Gibbel
Chaney C. Kalinich
Sreeja Kondeti
Megan Lee
Faith Lewis
Elaine M. Louden
Victoria Rai
Nadia Saeed
Thomas J. Stovall
Elliott Vanderford
Kathryn M. Wall
Xaviera Webb
Mitchel Wride

Editors

Hannah Carson
Pranam Dey
Clare Elizondo
John Havlik
Zeb (Jehanzeb) Kayani
Michael Murphy
Apurv Hirsh Shekhar

YJHPLE Advisory Board

Henry J. Aaron, Ph.D., Senior Fellow, Brookings Institution

Jennifer Bard, J.D, M.P.H., Ph.D, Professor of Law, University of Florida Levin College of Law

Bernard Black, J.D., M.A., Nicholas D. Chabraja Professor at Northwestern University School of Law and Kellogg School of Management

M. Gregg Bloche, M.D., J.D., Professor of Law, Georgetown University, and Co-Director, Georgetown- Johns Hopkins Joint Program in Law & Public Health

Benjamin Berkman, J.D., M.P.H., Senior Staff Bioethicist, Section on Ethics and Genetics, NIH, Deputy Director, Bioethics Core, NIH, Adjunct Professor, Georgetown University Law Center

Lara Cartwright-Smith, J.D., M.P.H., Associate Professor, George Washington University School of Public Health

Kathy Cerminara, J.D., J.S.D., LL.M., Professor of Law, Shepard Broad College of Law

I. Glenn Cohen, J.D., James A. Attwood and Leslie Williams Professor of Law, Harvard Law School, Faculty Director, Petrie-Flom Center

Bernard Dickens, LL.M., Ph.D., LL.D., Professor Emeritus of Health Law and Policy, University of Toronto

Kelly K. Dineen, R.N., J.D., Ph.D., Assistant Professor of Law and Director of Health Law Program, Creighton University

Marisa Domino, Ph.D., Professor, Gillings School of Global Public Health, University of North Carolina

Carl Elliott, M.D., Ph.D., Professor, Center for Bioethics and Department of Pediatrics, University of Minnesota

Alicia Ely Yamin, Senior Fellow, Petrie-Flom Center for Health Law Policy, Biotechnology and Bioethics, Harvard Law School

Mary D. Fan, J.D., M.Phil, Jack R. MacDonald Endowed Chair, Professor of Law, University of Washington School of Law

Judith Feder, Ph.D., Professor, McCourt School of Public Policy, Georgetown University

Robert Field, Ph.D., M.P.H., J.D., Professor, Drexel University Dornsife School of Public Health

Howard Forman, M.D., M.B.A., F.A.C.R., Professor of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, Public Health, Management, and Economics, Yale University

Jacqueline Fox, J.D., LL.M., Associate Professor of Law, University of South Carolina

Leslie Francis, Ph.D., J.D., Alfred C. Emery Professor of Law, Professor of Philosophy, Utah

David Frankford, J.D., Professor, Rutgers Law School, Rutgers Institute for Health, Health Care Policy and Aging Research

Barry R. Furrow, J.D., Professor of Law, Director, Health Law Program, Drexel Kline School of Law

Lance Gable, J.D., M.P.H., Associate Professor of Law, Wayne State University

Carol Galletly, Ph.D., J.D., M.A., Associate Professor, Medical College of Wisconsin

David Gamage, J.D., M.A., Professor of Law, Indiana University Maurer School of Law

Nicole Garnett, J.D., John P. Murphy Foundation Professor of Law, University of Notre Dame School of Law

Hank Greely, J.D., Deane F. and Kate Edelman Johnson Professor of Law, Director, Center for Law and the Biosciences, Stanford Law School

Lewis Grossman, Ph.D., J.D., Professor of Law, American University Washington College of Law

Ralph Hall, J.D., Professor of Practice, University of Minnesota Law School

Claudia Haupt, J.S.D., LL.M., Ph.D., M.A., LL.B., Associate Professor and Academic Co-Director, Beazley Institute for Health Law and Policy, Northeastern University

Jacob Hacker, Ph.D., Stanley Resor Professor of Political Science, Yale Department of Political Science

Dean M. Hashimoto, M.D., J.D., M.P.H., Professor of Law, Boston College, and Chief of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital and the Brigham and Women's Hospital Yaniv Heled, J.S.D., LL.M., Associate Professor of Law, Co-Director, Center for Intellectual Property, Georgia State University College of Law

Martin Hevia, S.J.D., Dean, Associate Professor at the School of Law, and Founding Chair, Framework Convention on Global Health Alliance, Universidad Torcuato di Tella

Allison Hoffman, J.D., Professor of Law, University of Pennsylvania

Sharona Hoffman, JD, LLM, SJD, Edgar A. Hahn Professor of Law, Co-Director, The Law-Medicine Center, Case Western Reserve University

Kathleen Hoke, J.D., Law Professor, University of Maryland Carey School of Law

Heather H. Howard, J.D., Lecturer in Public Affairs and Director, State Health and Value Strategies, Princeton University

Nicole Huberfeld, J.D., Professor of Health Law, Ethics, and Human Rights, Boston University School of Public Health

John Jacobi, J.D., Dorothea Dix Professor of Health Law & Policy, Faculty Director of the Center for Health & Pharmaceutical Law & Policy, Seton Hall University

Elizabeth Joh, J.D., Ph.D., Martin Luther King Jr. Professor of Law, University of California, Davis

Timothy S. Jost, J.D., Robert L. Willett Family Professor of Law, Washington and Lee University School of Law

Richard Kaplan, J.D., Guy Raymond Jones Chair in Law, Illinois College of Law

Graham Kelder, J.D., Associate Professor, Suffolk University

Aaron S. Kesselheim, M.D., J.D., M.P.H., Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School

Dionne Koller, Professor of Law, Director, Center for Sport and Law, University of Baltimore

Stephen R. Latham, J.D., Ph.D., Director, Interdisciplinary Center for Bioethics

Sylvia Law, J.D., Elizabeth K. Dollard Professor of Law, Medicine, and Psychiatry Emerita, Co-Director, Arthur Garfield Hays Civil Liberties Program

Stacey Lee, J.D., Associate Professor, Johns Hopkins University Carey Business School

Erika Lietzan, J.D., M.A., Associate Professor of Law, University of Missouri School of Law

Janet Lord, LL.B., LL.M., Senior Fellow, Harvard Law School Project on Disability

Kristin Madison, Ph.D., Professor of Law and Health Sciences, Northeastern University

Douglas Mancino, J.D., Partner, Seyfarth Shaw LLP

Thomas G. McGuire, Professor of Health Economics, Harvard Medical School

Michelle Mello, J.D., Ph.D., MPhil, Professor of Law, Professor of Medicine, Stanford University

Jonathan Mezrich, M.D., J.D., M.B.A., LL.M., Assistant Professor, Yale School of Medicine

Amy Monahan, J.D., Distinguished McKnight University Professor, Associate Dean for Research & Planning, The Melvin Steen & Corporate Donors Professor, University of Minnesota Law School

Osagie Obasogie, J.D., Ph.D., Haas Distinguished Chair, Professor of Bioethics, University of California, Berkeley

Jonathan Oberlander, Ph.D., Professor and Chair of Social Medicine, Professor of Health Policy and Management, University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill

Frances Olsen, J.D., S.J.D., Professor of Law, University of California, Los Angeles

Russell K. Osgood, J.D., Visiting Professor of Law, Washington University in St. Louis

Alicia Ouellette, President, Dean, and Professor of Law, Albany Law School

Kevin Outterson, J.D., Professor of Law & N. Neal Pike Scholar in Health and Disability Law, Boston University

Jordan Paradise, J.D., Georgia Reithal Professor of Law, Loyola University Chicago School of Law

Frank Pasquale, J.D., MPhil, Professor of Law, University of Maryland Carey School of Law

Rachel Rebouche, J.D., LL.M., Professor, Temple University Beasley School of Law

Judith Resnik, J.D., Arthur Liman Professor of Law, Founding Director, Liman Center for Public Interest Law, Yale Law School

Naomi Rogers, Ph.D., Professor of the History of Medicine, Yale University

Casey Ross, J.D., M.B.A., Director, American Indian Law and Sovereignty Center, Clinical Professor of Law, University General Counsel, Oklahoma City University

Karen Rothenberg, J.D., M.P.A., Margorie Cook Professor of Law, University of Maryland Carey School of Law

Elyn R. Saks, J.D., MLitt, Orrin B. Evans Professor of Law, Psychology, and Psychiatry and the Behavioral Sciences, University of Southern California Gould School of Law

Ameet Sarpatwari, J.D., Ph.D., Assistant Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School

Nadia Sawicki, J.D., M.Bioethics, Georgia Reithal Professor of Law, Loyola University Chicago

Fred Schauer, J.D., M.B.A., David and Mary Harrison Distinguished Professor of Law, University of Virginia School of Law

Vicki Schultz, J.D., Ford Foundation Professor of Law and Social Sciences, Yale Law School

Josh Sharfstein, M.D., Professor of Practice, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health

Lois Shepherd, J.D., Professor, University of Virginia School of Medicine

Jim Silk, J.D., Binger Clinical Professor of Human Rights; Director, Allard K. Lowenstein International Human Rights Clinic; and Director, Orville H. Schell, Jr. Center for International Human Rights, Yale Law School

David Smith, Ph.D., Research Professor, Drexel Dornsife School of Public Health

Roy G. Spece, J.D., John D. Lyons Professor of Law, University of Arizona James E. Rogers College of Law

John Spengler, J.D., Ph.D., Professor, Texas A&M University School of Public Health

Yofi Tirosh, S.J.D., LL.M., LL.B., Associate Professor, Tel Aviv University Faculty of Law, Dean, Sapir Academic College School of Law

Nicolas P. Terry, LL.M., Hall Render Professor of Law, Executive Director of the William S. and Christine S. Hall Center for Law and Health, Indiana University Robert H. McKinney School of Law

Jennifer Wagner, J.D., Ph.D., Assistant Professor and Associate Director of Bioethics Research, Geisinger

Wendy Wagner, J.D., M.E.S, Richard Dale Endowed Chair of Law, University of Texas at Austin School of Law

Heather A. Walter-McCabe, J.D., M.S.W., Associate Professor, Indiana University School of Social Work

Sidney Watson, Jane and Bruce Robert Professor of Law, Direcotr of the Center for Health Law Studies, Southern Louisiana University

Timothy Westmoreland, J.D., Professor from Practice, Georgetown Law

Joseph White, Ph.D., M.A., Luxenberg Family Professor of Public Policy, Director of Graduate Studies, Director of Center for Policy Studies, Professor of Population and Quantitative Health Sciences, Case Western Reserve University

Edward A Zelinsky, J.D., M.A., M.Phil, Morris and Annie Trachman Professor of Law, Yeshiva University Cardozo School of Law